Guitar | Bass | Keyboard | Microphones | Mixers | Audio Interfaces | Monitors | Sequencers | Soft Synths | Live Sound | Drums | Club  | Accessories | Blowouts
 SameDay Music   shop at zzounds!

Guide | Rigs | Forums | Reviews | Bookstore | Jukebox | BlogsSearch  |  Mobile  

Tweak's Guide
to Recording



For Noobs

MIDI Basics

Audio Basics

Studio Rigs

Studio Pics

Past Studios

Signal Flow

System Guide

Mac vs. PC

Audio Interfaces


Install Issues

Buy Gear 

Writing Music





CC Events

MIDI Routing


Understanding your Mixer

Digital Mixers

Analog Mixers

Mixer Hookup

Control Surface


Mic Preamps



MIDI Modules




Soft Samplers

Soft Synths

Audio Plugins

Synth Prg Tips

MIDI to Audio




Studio Setup

Room Acoustics

War on Hum

Quiet Room

Dual Monitors

DJ studio


16 vs 24 bit

Word Clock


Build a DAW


Record Vocal

Session Tips

Vocal Editing

AutoTune etc

Using EQ


Guitar Tracks

Guitar Tone

Drum Tips

Drum Patterns

Hip Hop Beats





Pan, Vol, FX

Mixing 101

Mix Methods


Field Recorders

Archiving Songs

Make Money

Sound Dev Tips


Audio for Film




Final Exam





Guitar Gallery

Store Links


Multitrack Recorders
Signal Processors
Studio Racks

Computer Music

Audio Interfaces
Soft Synths/
Plugins and FX
MIDI Interfaces
Control Surfaces
DSP Cards


Keyboard Synths
Keyboard Accessories
MIDI Modules
Groove Boxes
Keyboard Controllers
Keyboard Amps
Expansion Boards

Guitars, Amps,
and Effects

Electric Guitars
Guitar Effects
Guitar Amps
Acoustic Guitars
Classical Guitars


Drum Machines
Drum Hardware
Other Drums


Bass Guitars,
Live Sound/PA


The Signal Flow of a Recording Studio

page 1 2 3

The Importance of I/O "Inputs and Outputs"

MTR's are best for bands when you DON'T want a computer

Is your brain alive test #2: Q) How many mic/instrument inputs would you need to record this 4 piece ensemble? 
A) I count 10 (if everyone sings)   (of course if the drummer is a [bleep]s/he might want to double mic each drum and raise the i/o count)

Having the right amount of i/o or inputs and outputs is absolutely essential to making the right decisions for your rig. Many people get fooled here, and they feel like idiots after they make a huge and expensive blunder.  Whether you go with an audio interface by itself, use a mixer and a soundcard or interface, of get a multi track recorder, the question is always the same:  How much i/o do you need?  What kind of i/o is the next question.  Do you need at least 8 mic preamps to record you band?  Or do you need 16?   Of course if you are recording by yourself, one track at a time you only need 1 or 2 (for stereo).  Avoid the mistake of thinking adding a mixer adds to your overall i/o.  It does not.  It just gives you more ways to connect gear to your existing i/o on your recorder or audio interface/soundcard.

With inexpensive multitrack recorders, you might read the they are a "16 track" but when you open it up you realize it only has 2 or 4 mic preamps and maybe a pair of line inputs.  That 16 track will not record the small band above.  As you go up in price, usually your i/o increases.  As we get to 24 tracks, the desktop format MTR becomes impractical due to the large size of the mixer and huge number of i/o jacks. 

The modular multi track recorder typically has 24 inputs and 24 outputs.  The idea is that you will add a 24 (or 32) channel mixer, either digital or analog.  You can connect 24 mics if you want and record 24 tracks at once.  After recording, the board has to be reconfigured for the mix where the 24 outputs of the recorder now feed the mixer's 24 inputs.  That is where the patchbay comes in.  You can quickly and easily switch the board from recording to playback.  (Note: some boards have channels that do double duty of recording and playback on a single fader.  We'll get to those "Mix B" boards later).  Large digital mixers are often configurable with internal switching between the analog inputs (from the band) and the digital inputs from the recorder via ADAT lightpipe or Tascam TDIF cables).  


The Modular Multi-track Recording Studio

signal flow2


The modular multi-track studio is most appropriate for those seeking to record bands where many tracks may be recorded at the same time.  This design is classic because it goes back to the 70's and 80's when multi-track reel to reel machines were mixed down to a 2 track reel to reel.  Today, the equivalent of those machines is the 24 track modular digital recorder and 2 Track Recorder.  In the old days, the tracks were sent to a 2 track reel to reel.  Today there are many options for recording the mix, even handheld portable digital recorders as the quality is now very impressive on these.  Almost any computer can work here, even laptops, as 2 track recording does not take much CPU or memory. 

Sony PCMD50 96kHz/24bit PCM Recorder With USB
Loaded with top of the line features ranging from 24Bit/96kHz sample rate, standard WAV file recording format for use with numerous DAW applications, 4GB Built-in Memory for up to 6 hours of recording time at 16Bit/44.1kHz.

To rephrase, the multi track recorder simply records the performances as they stream out of the mixer.  On playback, the signals go back through the mixer, through sends and returns from the rack of processors and out the 2 track output to a second recorder or computer with a soundcard or audio interface.  


Alesis ADAT HD24 Digital Hard Disk Recorder
Presenting the new state-of-the-art in digital recording systems. With 24 tracks, 2 swappable bays, built-in computer interface, and resolution up to 24-bit/48 kHz, it's easy to see why this is the future of recording.


Note the patchbay routing traffic between the processor rack and the mixer.  A patchbay allows the easy insertion of compressors, fx boxes, harmonizers, eqs, wherever they are needed.  A decent mixer will have inserts, direct outs, sends and returns which will all feed the patchbay.  This allows the insertion of devices in either the recording chain or the playback chain efficiently.  For example, if you have an expensive vintage compressor you could use it to record the vocal and once that is done you could repatch easily to enhance the drums on playback. 

Tascam DM4800 digital mixer

While the basic example above uses all analog connections, the modular multi-track rig can also be fully digital.  If a digital mixer is used once can use the digital i/o of the multi track.  Most of today's processors also have digital i/o and the digital mixer can do all the functions of a patchbay in its software.  A well-equipped digital mixer will have its own effects and processors onboard which will lessen the need for an outboard rack.  As one goes digital, the only analog connections that may remain are those tied to microphones.  As these home studios go semi-pro, they may add high end preamps to replace the functions of the onboard mixer preamps.  That step, along with careful room treatment or the addition of rooms for guitars, drums, vocals can dramatically bring one's home studio up to a great spec.

Studio Social Manners courtesy of Tweak's Lab

(or how to create a sense of mystique around your studio)

Studio owners sometimes appear to outsiders to have a smug, downright condescending attitude.  Its hard to avoid, as we don't want too may ppl talking in there, particularly we don't need loudmouths.

But here is how it looks to them.  You follow your friend's band to the studio and someone stops you at the door and smiles "sorry" and you know you are not getting in.  The mystique of the recording studio is defined by who you don't let in.  The more socially popular the people you bar from your studio, the greater the mystique, the curiosity about what you have running in there..  So its a good idea to bring in one of your quieter friends and give them the full tour, let them play with the mics, effects, so when they go back out they have stories to tell.  Years later they will still get asked "hey, are you still working in the studio".  It creates good will, and lets people know you aren't really a [bleep]hole.

Tascam DVRA1000HD High-Resolution Audio/DSD Master Recorder with Hard Drive
The TASCAM DV-RA1000HD is the new go-to device for high-resolution mixdown, mastering and event recording. It supports recording to CD, DVD or hard disk media at up to 192kHz/24-bit PCM resolution. Like its predecessor, the DV-RA1000, it also records Direct Stream Digital audio, Sony's revolutionary format created for Super Audio CDs. TASCAM remains the only manufacturer to offer Direct Stream Digital recording for under $10,000, making the format attainable for audiophile archival and professional studio mixdown. Tweak:  This is a high end 2 track recorder.


Finally, it is possible to incorporate and integrate a MIDI/Audio sequencer and DAW into the multi-track rig.  In fact, for today's professional studio this allows one to take on a much larger range of projects.  Many of today's clients may come in with work already started on their home DAWs.  An Audio interface with digital connections such as ADAT will allow 8 channel bulk transfers from DAW to Multi-track machine.  Such a system also lets one use MIDI with its sequenced tracks, soft synths/samplers, plugins and arranging capabilities to generate tracks.  Through use of various clock protocols such as MTC (MIDI Time Code), SMPTE or ADAT Sync, the multi track, digital mixer and DAW can all be synchronized to the same time base.


back to the previous page





Tweak's Articles on Essential Studio Concepts

Hooking Up Audio
MIDI Basics
The Many Functions of MIDI Data
The Audio Interface
Signal Flow Computer-based Studio
Signal Flow of an MPC Hip Hop Studio
Signal Flow of a MultiTrack Studio
Assembling Your Studio Rig
Studio setup in a Nutshell
5 Hot Tips
Building a Quiet Room
Understanding MIDI Interfaces
The War on Hum
Multiple Video Displays
Latency and how to Deal
Word Clock
Everything About Cables
Digital Audio Converters
Bit Depth and Sample Rate
Studio Monitors
Impedance for Musicicans
How to setup a Patchbay
Room Acoustics Basics
Studio Monitors Price List
Acoustic Products
Catalog of MIDI Interfaces



TweakHeadz Lab | Studio-Central | Audio-Pro-Central  Master INDEX  | Store Affiliations | Site Map | Support the Lab | Privacy Policy | 2010